Cryptography and Network Security


Data transfer in a business system often takes place with the help of the digital medium. In such a scenario security of this data remains at the prime focus of all the organizations. Cryptography here plays a pivotal role in maintaining the safety of the transferred data. we shall explore the in and out of this technique of core importance.


Cryptography, which translates as “secret writing,” refers to the science of concealing the meaning of data so only specified parties understand a transmission’s contents. Cryptography has existed for thousands of years; for most of history, however, the users of cryptography were associated with a government or organized group and were working to conceal secret messages from enemies. These days, millions upon millions of secure, encoded transmissions happen online each day — and cryptographic standards are used to protect banking data, health information, and much more.


Without cryptography, e-commerce as we know it would be impossible. Since online security threats evolve so quickly, there are dozens of different schools of thought on how best to use encryption to enhance network security — not just for governments, but for businesses and end users, too.


In today’s modern world hiding confidential information is a vital objective for any organization or country.


When this information needs to be transmitted to another location it becomes vulnerable to hackers and eavesdroppers.


Cryptography presents different methods to make that transition of information from one location to another location secure and safe.


The process is simple yet very secure. First the information is ciphered by the sender.


The sender encrypts that information and generates a key which would be used by the receiver to decipher that information.


After being encrypted that information is send to the sender using what so ever medium that is available.


When the encrypted information reaches its destination it is decrypted using the key provided by sender.


There are five basic objectives of cryptography:

Confidentiality- anyone who is out of the circle cannot understand the information between the sender and receiver.

  • Integrity- no alteration is possible once the message is released.
  • Authentication- information and sources in the cryptography system are purely authentic. Both sender and receiver can identify each other and origin or destination of the information.
  • Non-repudiation- none of the sender or receivers can step back of the message at a later stage.
  • Access control- only authorized people can access the confidential data.


To attain the above objectives the following formats of cryptography are practiced-


  • Symmetric cryptography- also known as secret key cryptography, it is a method in which both sender and receiver share the same secret code and key for encryption and decryption. This technique is useful if you are communicating with a limited number of people; however, it is not much useful for mass communication.
  • Asymmetric cryptography- this is also known as public key cryptography in which, separate keys are used for encryption and decryption. This is useful for key exchange and digital signatures such as RSA, digital signature algorithm, public-key cryptography standard etc.
  • Message-digest- in this, a hash function is used to permanently encrypt the data. This is also called one-way encryption.


There are three basic algorithms that are used in cryptography:

– Secret key cryptography

– Public key cryptography

– Hash functions cryptography.


Cryptography protects the network resources against alteration, destruction, and their unauthorized use. They secure the network system, IT assets, and the confidential data. In today’s scenario, it has become quite easy to alter or restrain the data and information. Theft of confidential information is again a discomforting phenomenon.


Though technology changes rapidly, the need to assure the confidentiality, integrity, authenticity, and accountability of information does not. Understanding the basics of cryptography is fundamental to keeping your networks, systems, and data secure

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